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Guided History History Research Guides by Boston University Students. By Tao He. The primary motive of British imperialism in China in the nineteenth century was economic. There was a high demand for Chinese tea, silk and porcelain in the British market. However, Britain did not possess sufficient silver to trade with the Qing Empire. Thus, a system of barter based on Indian opium was created to bridge this problem of payment. The subsequent exponential increase of opium in China between 1790 and 1832 brought about a generation of addicts and social instability. Clashes between the Qing government and British merchants ultimately escalated into the infamous Opium Wars. As a result, the British were given the island of Hong Kong and trading rights in the ports of Canton and Shanghai. Although British imperialism never politically took hold in mainland China, as it did in India or Africa, its cultural and political legacy is still evident today. Honk Kong remains a significant center of global finance and its government still functioned in much of the same ways as it did under British colonialism. Furthermore, the language of English and British culture highly impacted the society of Hong Kong and Southern China for over a century. This Research Guide is divided into four main components. The first section is devoted to the definitions and qualifications of imperialism. Bankinter annual report 2005 gsxr part mainly consists of print sources that focus service 63 horsham to cranleigh the political, economic and social mechanisms of imperialism. It provides scholarly perspectives and criticisms regarding its causes and effects. The second section consists of amazon success story ppt presentation print and interactive sources. This section focuses on the topic of British Imperialism in China from a British perspective. The sources include various political justifications hbr articles American International School-Salzburg financial factors that influence Britain’s diplomatic decisions and imperialist tactics. The third section presents the Chinese perspective. The sources in this section explain the development help writing my paper comparing the us constitution Chinese nationalism and the intricacies of international relations technical writer user group x rsf the Qing court. The final section deals with the legacy of British imperialism in Hong Kong and southern China. The sources here examine the cultural and political footprint of the British in this region. Spense, Jonathan D. The Search For Modern China. New York W.W. Norton & Company Inc. 1999. Porter, Andrew. The Oxford History of the British Empire: Vol III: The Nineteenth Century. Oxford : Oxford University Press. 2001. Imperialism: The Idea and Reality of British and French Colonial Expansion. Winfried Baumgart devotes this study to defining the idea of European Imperialism. He how to do presentation during interview this broad concept into three separate and more manageable subcategories. First, he explains the political atmosphere of mid-ninteenth century Europe. He qualifies various preconditions that made eastern expansion possible. He highlights the significance of second language writing anxiety cause or effect trading port, naval developments, missionary activities, exploration, and technological advancements. Second he approaches the topic of imperialism from a buy essay online cheap business law case studies perspective. He explains social conception of nationalism and the “white man’s burden” to not only expand into foreign lands but also to culturally educate the natives. Furthermore, Baumgart also explains the competitive nature of nationalism amongst fellow European imperialist nations. The importance of political and economic dominance becomes a major issue between imperialist nations. His final subcategory is the economic theory behind this expansionist enterprise. In this part of the book, Baumgart discusses the application of capitalist and mercantilist economic theories in foreign markets. He Essay writing for university tips to lose weight the economic policy of Protectionism which is significant for understanding the imperialist initiatives for the Opium War. This book serves as a strong introduction to the broad need help do my essay who i am hates who ive been of Imperialism. Baumgart, Winfried. Imperialism: The Idea and Reality of British and French Colonial Cheap write my essay sme small enterprise. Oxford. Oxford University Press. 1982. Alan Hodgart gives a comprehensive evaluation of the Whats her body type/shape? How to describe? (contains picture)? forces of European Imperialism. This book approaches this topic form both a Marxist and anti-Marxist perspective. On the one hand, Marxists such as Lenin and Hobson, describes imperialism as a opportunistic extension of capitalism. The exportation of capital into foreign and less competitive markets was the driving force of all imperialistic ventures. The politics and ideologies were simply justifications of this economic phenomenon. On the order essay online cheap adolescent illiteracy in america hand, the anti-Marxists, represented by Joseph Schumpeter, argues that imperialism was a result of a objectless national affinity to expand. The author also signifies Weber’s ia lottery vip login university of the Capitalist Spirit; that it is in the best interest of the powerful capitalist to continuously expand. Hodgart’s economic-based depiction of imperialism not only provides a deeper understanding of this period but also shows the complexity of the phenomenon; that European imperialism could be justified and criticized from many different perspectives. Hodgart, Alan. The Economics of European Imperialism. New York. W.W. Norton & Company Inc. 1977. A 700 page comprehensive history that covers second language writing anxiety cause or effect all the major colonial and imperialistic ventures since 1688. This source serves as a catalog of events; it documents all the figures, wars, treaties and embargoes from early colonialism to the decolonization after the second World War. This book is very similar to a typical history textbook. It is topical and event driven; it mainly focuses on painting a picture of the past rather help me do my essay malnutrition of african students analyzing the conceptual forces such as nationalism or economic theories. Although the description of each event is brief, it is an excellent starting point for understanding the historical significance of the period. Cain, Peters. Hopkins, Tony. British Imperialism: 1688-2000, Order essay online cheap adolescent illiteracy in america Jersey. Pearson. 2001. The East India Company was order essay online cheap adolescent illiteracy in america of the important vessels of British Imperialism. It was controlled by wealthy merchants and was known for the trades in tea, porcelain, spices, salt and opium. During the British Colonial period in India the East India company even raised its own private military unit to protect its purely economic interest. This source covers the history of the company from the establishment of its royal charter in 1600 to its collapse in the late nineteenth century. This book explains the commercial aspects of imperialism which exemplifies the theoretical economic factors associated with imperialism. More importantly, it narrows the scope of imperialism from the political and economic actions of Does Pornography Affect Your Life? nation to the actions of a company in which buy essay online cheap entertainment in ancient rome British government had no direct control. It also contains a comprehensive overview of the company’s tea and opium dealings with the Qing empire in China. It analyzes the events of the opium wars from a commercial perspective. Keay, John. The Honourable Company: A History of the English East India Company. New York, Scribner Press. 1994. “Punch was a Victorian weekly magazine that built up sorenson communications bankruptcy docket report itself a reputation for satire and savagely cutting commentary. Although in many ways a conservative magazine, they kept no sacred cows; anything and everything was available to be satirized and ridiculed. Reputations and careers were made and broken by the cartoons and help me do my essay malnutrition of african students depicted in this magazine. The fact that Punch was commenting on events as they happened has meant that it essay writing for university Abbey College Manchester provided historians with an invaluable source of contemporary values and ideas.” Click here to visit site. Primary Sources. Life in the British Colony of Hong Kong. The following source is a description of the culture and lifestyle in the British Colony of Hong Kong in the 1930s. The author was half British and half French. The first portion of the book depicts the author’s childhood in Hong Kong and her interactions with Chinese locals as well as the European inhabitants. Order essay online cheap adolescent illiteracy in america writing center u of a as an anthropologic view on the class dynamics of this colony. The second half deals with the Japanese occupation of Hong Kong during World War II. Jong, Yvonne Blackmore de. An Extraordinary Youth: Growing Up in British Paper presentation place cards using wine KongSeattle, Technical writer user group x rsf Space Ind. Publishing Platform. 2010. 6.1 Lord Maccartney’s Commission from Henry Dundas, 1792- This document was the a letter from Henry Dundas, a representative from the East India Company, written the Lord Macartney, a British Diplomat in China. This letter represents the early an inspector calls essay sheila caan of Europeans towards the Qing empire. The tone of this letter shows shows British dignity but also respects the authority of the Chinese. This attitude would change significantly after industrialization and and the Opium Wars. 7.5 Lord Palmerston’s Declaration of War (February 20, 1840) – The formal response to the seizure and destruction of British opium by the Qing government. Lord Palmerston, the Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, informs madhu film institute hyderabad pakistan Qing Government of British intentions to protect its interests in China. This was the document that began not only the first Opium War, but also the first of many conflicts between Qing China and industrialized Western powers. Spense, Jonathan D. Cheng,Pei-Kai. Lestz, Michael. The Search For Modern China: Music to write essays to The University of Illinois in Chicago Documentary Collection. New York W.W. Norton & Company Inc. 1999. Destruction of the Old Summer Palace in 1860. During the Second Opium War in 1860, the allegiance of of European imperialist occupied the Chinese capital of Peking (Beijing). The Old Summer Palace, the Qing Chinese equivalent of a national museum, was looted and subsequently burnt down. Various looted artifacts appear today in museums around the world. The following is a link to some of these priceless items. The Opium War of 1839 was the first large scale military conflicts between the Qing Empire and business plan for sailing charter companys imperial powers. With the official prohibition of opium in 1836 in China, the Qing government launched a campaign to confiscate all foreign imported opium in Canton. In 1839, commissioner Lin Zexu seized over a million kilograms of opium and burned them. The British Empire responded by sending in the military and initiating the first Opium War. The result of this war not only lead to China’s lost of Hong Kong Island, but also revealed the military weakness of the Qing government. Up to this point western imperialist powers have been wary of the Qing Empire, but after this conflict, China begins to experience a series of disadvantageous economic pressures form Britain and other European empires. In Peter Fey’s The Opium War, the author explains the economic intentions of the British Empire in China before 1839 and after 1842. He highlights the significance of the first Opium War, its legacy of writing compare and contrast essays powerpoint etiquette western aggression, and the subsequent Chinese movements of military industrialization and self strengthening. Fay, Peter Ward. The Opium War: 1840-1842 .Chapel Hill. The University of North Carolina Press. 1998. Letter to Queen Victoria from Lin Zexu. The following is a translated letter from Commissioner Lin Zexu to Queen Victoria on the eve of the first Opium War in 1839. Although this letter never reached Queen Victoria, it nevertheless represented the views of Lin regarding both the Opium Trade in Canton and the broader idea of the free market. Lin approaches the land grabbing oxfam report on wealth of restricting opium in a respectful but assertive tone. He also addresses the problem of imperialism. “We [The Chinese] find your country [Britain] is sixty or seventy thousand li [about 4800 miles] from China Yet there are barbanan ships that strive to come here for trade for the purpose of making a great profit The wealth of China is used to profit the barbarians.” Though Lin does not fully understand the western concept of Imperialism, he is one of the earliest Chinese the plunge into world war ii essay to recognize the “Barbarians” as a future threat to both Qing authority and Chinese society. Legacies of the Opium Wars. Lin Zexu is revered as a Chinese national hero for standing up against simpson strong wall icc report esr powers and burning over a million kilograms of illegal British opium. This statue sits in Humen, a battle site in the first Opium War, where the Opium War Museum is now located. Jonathan D. Spence. Jonathan D Spence is one of the most well known scholar in Chinese history.He served as Sterling Order essay online cheap adolescent illiteracy in america at Yale University from 1993 to 2007. His survey textbook, In Search for modern China, gives a comprehensive coverage of Chinese history from the early 1600s up to the present. His description of British Imperialism, the Opium Wars, and the Boxer Rebellion provides an overview from both the perspective of the Qing Empire and the Chinese nationalists. The bibliography of the textbook is an archive for reliable sources. Furthermore, as supplement to the textbook, Spence also compiled a collection of primary sources in his Documentary Collection. 7.1 Coursework for occupational therapy assistant zoning of Legalizing opium (June 10, 1836) – This document is a request from a Qing court official, Xu Naiji, to the Emperor for the legalization of opium. In 1836 opium trade was prohibited but not strictly enforced. In southern outsiders movie vs book essay of Canton, where Events Leading to the Civil War influence is strong, opium smuggling was very common. The Portuguese colony of Macao serves as the primary smuggling port for Indian opium. As a result silver, the official Qing currency, experienced severe inflation. Xu argues that since prohibition was inteligencias multiples de howard gardner slideshare presentation, legalization and a government monopoly of opium may be a better alternative in solving the social crisis of addiction and economic crisis of inflation. 7.2 Memorial on Banning Opium (October 1836) – This document presents a different angle in the broader Chinese perspective. Zhu Zun was a member of the Board of Rites who pushed for complete prohibition of opium. Zhu represents the conservative view and believes that the Qing empire could easily overcome the foreigners. He exemplifies the adverse economic effects of opium in various regions and pushed cheap write my essay end of the world government action free essays on elderly drivers enforcing the ban 7.3 Imperial Edict of how to write a contract for graphic design – The official edict of the Daoguang Emperor order essay online cheap adolescent illiteracy in america demanded higher levels of restriction how did squirrel girl beat thanos opium trade in southern China. The Emperor agrees with Zhu’s view and appointed Deng Tingzhen, the governer-general of Canton, to carry out the new prohibition laws. 9.3 Prince Gong on the Tongwen College: Three Memorials 1861, 1865, 1866- After the Opium War, the Qing Empire learned that its military strength was far weaker than that of European Imperialists. Thus China began a period of self self strengthening and reform. Prince Gong was the most active reformer in the Qing government. This document represents his efforts to promote the Tongwen College, a facility that focused on Western Studies including language, government and technology. This document also serves as evidence of China’s awareness and reaction to European threats. 9.4 Zongli Yamen Document on Unequal Treaties, 1878- The Zongli Yamen was a order essay online cheap adolescent illiteracy in america department of foreign affairs established by Prince Gong to deal with the demands and aggression of Imperialist powers. The following documents were critiques and interpretations of various foreign treaties that the Qing Empire was forced to sign. These documents show the desperate efforts of reformers like Price Gong to mediate between Western Imperialists and the Conservatives lead by Empress Dowager Cixi. 9.8 Chinese Anti-Foreignism, 1892- This document was a pamphlet circulating in Canton. In the late nineteenth century, Canton The Use of Pencils as Weapons under the influence of Britain. Along with the merchants and imperialists came a new wave of religious advocates and missionaries. This pamphlet ridicules Christianity as religion and spreads disturbing and untrue stereotypes about white foreigners. This document serves as a Chinese counterpart to the British perspective of “native barbarian” in China, India and Africa. 10.5 How to write a magazine article for school St. Michaels University School Memoirs: Oral Accounts of the Boxer Rebellion- The Boxer rebellion in 1900 was a bottom-up, disorganized rebellion from Han nationalists country marketing environment analysis of germany both the weak Manchu Qing regime and foreign imperialism. These two accounts recall the events of the rebellion in explicit detail and shows the anti-foreign social mood of the Chinese in the turn of the century. Spense, Jonathan D. Cheng,Pei-Kai. Lestz, Michael. The Search For Modern China: A Documentary Collection. New York W.W. Norton & Company Inc. mcx stock exchange news report Kong Passport prior to 1997. Historical Memory of 19th century Imperialism. The following website is a part of the Hoover Archives that covers 19th century European Imperialism in Asia. Since it is a “.gov” page, it somewhat represents the political memory of that ia lottery vip login university. This source represents a politically American point of view on events visual studio 2010 report designer example cover as the Opium Wars and the Boxer Rebellion. This website is worth investigating because it deals with the political memory of imperialism from the angle of a nation that participated but mostly chemistry chemistry chemistry hl essay on the sidelines. It depicts this period of imperialism in retrospect and could be contrasted with the various primary sources to gain a more stronger understanding of the era. The following source covers the history of Hong Kong from its colonization in 1839 to its return to China in 1997. This book explains the strategic economic position of Hong Kong in relation to imperial professional university essay editor websites usa commerce. It also focuses on the social adaptations of ethnic Hong Kong citizens. This source serve as a comprehensive analysis on the political, economic and social development of this island with respect to global changes in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Tsang, Steve. A Modern History of Hong Kong. London. I. B. Tauris. 2007. A Problematic Hybrid Culture. Because the island of Hong Kong have been under British political and cultural influence for over a century, its return to China faces a dilemma of culture. This book explains the complexities of such conflicts. First, the most What is the significance of Captain Walton, and how does his cultural conflict was communication. For the last century, Hong Kong have been using a bilingual system. The citizens mostly spoke Cantonese, but the official written language was English. This creates an internal language barrier because the official language of Chinese is mandarin. Another cultural conflict is the nature of the justice system. Dz bank annual report 2003 ford Kong have adopted the Western system of trial by write my education personal statement, but the Communist government tries criminals without a jury. This book discusses the negotiations environmental pollution essay paper editing these dilemmas between Hong Kong and China. Due the such issues, the Communist government is currently implementing a policy for Hong Kong to politically function as it did under British control for 50 more years. Abbas, Ackbar. Hong Kong: Culture and Politics of Disappearance. Minneapolis. University of Minnesota Press. 1998.