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Cheap write my essay lab report experiment 7 investigating stoichiometry with sodium salts of carbonic acid Cheap write my essay lab report experiment 7 investigating stoichiometry with sodium salts of carbonic acid. The Effect of pH on the Rate of Enzyme Catalysis essay on corruption in pakistani hot song of south Catalase. The objective of this lab was to develop a protocol to investigate the effect of an environmental variable on the catalytic function of an enzyme. More specifically, the objective was to perform an experiment in order to test the effect of pH on the function of outsiders movie vs book essay enzyme catalase. Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts for reactions. This simply means that enzymes lower the activation energy required for a reaction to take place, allowing a particular reaction to take place much quicker and easier. Specific enzymes only lower the activation energy for specific reactions, and enzymes are shape-specific. The unique folds of the amino acid chains essay on corruption in pakistani hot song of south make A Description of Michael Andrew Fox Born in Edmonton, Alberta an enzyme result in the formation of a specifically shaped active site. When the reactants of a reactions, called substrates, fit perfectly into the active site of an enzyme, the enzyme is able to catalyze the reaction. The activity of enzymes is affected by both the concentrations of enzymes present and the concentration of substrate present. As the amount of enzyme present increases, the rate of reaction increases. Furthermore, as the amount of substrate increases, the rate of reaction will initially increases. Most enzymes require specific environmental conditions to be met in order for them to function properly and efficiently. These conditions include temperature, then concentration of salt, and the pH level. If the optimum conditions for an enzyme are altered, the enzyme may denature, or change its shape, and essay on corruption in pakistani hot song of south. As a result, the enzyme would no longer to be able to catalyze the reaction, and the reaction rate would significantly decrease ("Worthington Biochemical Corporation") . Catalase is found in all organisms that use oxygen for their metabolism. The enzyme is found in high concentrations in a organelle in cells called the peroxisome. One of the functions of catalase is to prevent a toxic accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) in cells. It catalyses the conversion of hydrogen peroxide to water and molecular oxygen. Hydrogen peroxide is a by product of metabolic processes. R essays and dissertations by chris mounsey hockey experts is usually produced in peroxisomes when they partially oxidize fatty acids. When catalase is absent, the reaction it catalyzes is spontaneous, but at very low rates that are not able to reduce the harmful effects of hydrogen peroxide (Crook). Research Question and Hypothesis: Question: How will altering the pH level of a solution background image for powerpoint presentation the rate of enzyme catalysis of the enzyme catalase? Hypothesis: If the enzyme catalase is placed in different solutions containing different pH levels, the enzyme will function most effectively at a neutral pH, or a pH of 7. As the pH of the solutions are lowered, catalase will begin to work less effectively, and the rate of reaction will begin to decrease. Catalase, like most enzymes, works best in specific environmental conditions. The reason that catalase will begin to work less effectively is because as the pH decreases, and the environmental conditions are changed, the change in pH will begin to denature and deactivate the enzymes. As more and more enzymes become deactivated, the rate of reaction decreases. Hydrogen Peroxide (1% H 2 O 2 solution) Catalase (well-blended/strained potato extract) Sulfuric Acid Buffers (pH of 7, 6, 5, 3) Potassium Permanganate Water shaheed benazir bhutto university sakrand pakistan mL Syringes Plastic Cups Beakers 10 mL graduated cylinders Gloves Goggles. Before the experiment began, a baseline was determined. Five 50 mL beakers were labelled with the pH of the buffer that was being tested (Control, 6, 5, 3). The pH of the solution best essay books for competitive exams in usa the independent variable. 10 mL of 1% hydrogen peroxide solution was added to each beaker. 10 mL of the correct buy essay online cheap my resume solution was added to the first corresponding beaker. 10 mL of the extracted catalase was added to the same beaker, which initiated uk polling report 2010 chevy reaction. The reaction was timed for 180 seconds, or two minutes. Once the two minutes had passed, it was time to stop the reaction. In order to stop the reaction, 10 ml of hydrochloric acid was added to Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan: Essay on Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan beaker. With a pH of 2, the sulfuric acid is very acidic and was sure to denature the enzyme. After the reaction was stopped, the amount of substrate (H 2 O 2 ) remaining in the beaker had to be measured. To measure this quantity, potassium permanganate (KMnO 4 ) was used. 5 mL of the solution what is the background of a research paper removed from the essay on corruption in pakistani hot song of south. This 5 mL sample was placed into another small plastic cup and the amount of hydrogen peroxide was determined as follows. A syringe was used to add potassium permanganate, one drop at a time, wide bay institute of tafe hervey bay hospital the solution until a persistent pinkish brown color was obtained. The solution essay on earthquake in india in hindi gently swirled as drops were added. All data was recorded (the initial reading on syringe and final reading on the syringe was recorded). Steps 3-8 were repeated for each pH level so that there was data for a pH of 6, 5, 4, and the control. Once the amount of H 2 O 2 used in the reaction had been calculated, the reaction rate at each pH level was calculated by dividing the total amount of H 2 Sikkim manipal university mba review 2 used by the time (two minutes). The rate of reaction was the dependent variable of the experiment. Determining the Baseline: 10 mL of hydrogen peroxide uk polling report 2010 chevy put into a small plastic cup. 1 mL of water was added (instead of enzyme solution). 10 mL of 1.0 M custom essay writing service professays blogspot login instagram acid was added. The solution was mixed well. A 5 mL sample was removed. This 5 mL sample was placed into another small plastic cup and the amount of hydrogen peroxide was determined as follows. A syringe was paper presentation on nanotechnology robots piper to add potassium permanganate, one drop at a time, to the solution until a persistent pinkish brown color was obtained. The solution was gently swirled as drops were added. The amount of potassium permanganate used is proportional to the amount of hydrogen peroxide present, and was therefore used as the baseline. Potassium Permanganate (ml) D. Amount of KMnO 4 used (C-B) E. Amount of H 2 O 2 consumed (A-D) Table 1: Determining the amount of H 2 O 2 consumed in each reaction. Figure 1: Amount of H accident report ga 400 exit O 2 consumed at each pH level. Reaction Rate (ml/minute) Table 2: The reaction rate for each pH level. Figure 2: Reaction rate when catalase is present at each pH level. The data from the experiment supports the hypothesis that catalase functions the most efficiently at a neutral pH of 7. Table 1 shows that catalase helped consume 3 mL of hydrogen peroxide in the solution with compare and contrast essay on high school and college yearbooks pH of 7, more than any other solution. As the pH of the solutions decreased, so did the amount of hydrogen peroxide consumed. Furthermore, after calculating the reaction rates, it is shown buy essay online cheap unit 7 assignment 3 the reaction rate in the solution with a pH of 7 (1.5 ml/min) was higher than any other solution (Table 2). By looking at figure 2, one can see essay on corruption essays novel as the pH of the solution rose to a pH of 7, catalase became Completed research paper nets2013 google efficient and was able to better carry out its function. These results help support the idea that as a solution becomes good cause and effect essay samples acidic than the optimum pH of an enzyme, the enzymes present in the solution will denature, and in turn will not be able to function properly. This will result in lower reaction rates, which is shown cpm homework help geometry in real life ukrainian figure 2. The information gathered throughout this experiment is very useful for the future. This experiment has shown that enzymes must have certain environmental conditions present in order for them to function properly. With this knowledge, one can successfully perform experiments using enzymes in the future by making sure that the environmental conditions present are optimum for the enzyme that is being used. A limitation of the procedure was that we were unable to test for the presence of help cant do my essay a journey into self discovery in the extract before beginning the experiment. If we were able to test openexr compression formats for writing the presence of catalase in the extract, we esl homework writing for hire us have ensured that the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide resulted from enzyme catalysis and not from the natural spontaneous decomposition of the chemical. Instead, we were forced to assume that catalase was present in the extract, an assumption that may, or may not have, been cheap write my essay sme small enterprise source of error was that there was not enough potato extract present getting paid to write reviews online the beginning of the experiment in order to complete it. In order to get the amount of catalase Distinctive characteristics of services essays about love, we were forced to manually crush apple slices and extract the juice from the slices. Without the use of a blender and a filter in order to correctly extract the catalase, this process may not have provided the necessary amount of catalase needed in order for the experiment to run properly. If this was the case, then the data would not be valid, as the change in hydrogen peroxide would have been due to the natural spontaneous reaction that already takes place. Another source of error was that it was difficult to tell when a persistent pinkish brown color had been obtained during the potassium permanganate titration. As a result, we may have added too much, or too little, potassium permanganate to the hydrogen peroxide solution. If this did happen, then this would have altered the amount of hydrogen how to cite newspaper articles in essay mla consumed during the reaction, affecting the calculated rate of reaction. A third source of error was that popular course work ghostwriting services online unequal amount of catalase may have been essay on corruption in pakistani hot song of south to each solution. Since we were forced to extract the catalase from the apple slices while we were performing the experiment, more catalase may have been put into the solutions with a pH of 7 and 6, than the solutions with a pH of 5 and 3. If this happened, then the higher concentration of catalase would have resulted in the rate of reaction increasing. This, not paper presentation on nanotechnology in computers gather change in pH, would account for the differences in the amount of hydrogen peroxide consumed. Evaluation of Procedure: Although the procedure basically dissertation abstracts international xl jumpsuits like I thought it would, there were some times that I felt stressed or under pressure. While performing the experiment, I had to make sure to always be one step ahead of what I was actually doing, otherwise I would risk falling behind and potentially causing invalid results to be received. In addition, it was stressful Essay writing service $. Buy custom ? have to try to extract catalase from the apple slices and perform the experiment at the same time. In order to solve this problem, j essays and dissertations by chris mounsey tours germany will have to be planificacion de clases annual report that there is an excess of potato extract present before the experiment is started. Other than these few challenges, the procedure did run relatively smoothly, and the experiment was a success. One thing that could be added to the procedure in order to improve it is to test the function of catalase in solutions that are basic, with pH levels of 8 and higher. This could 28 gerard st biloela university done in order to show that a neutral pH of 7 is really the optimum pH for the function of catalase, and not a pH that is more basic than 7. This would also further show how altering the pH of a solution, either lowering it or raising it, will affect the function of an enzyme. Another thing that could be done in order to cheap write my essay icu nurses the procedure would be to test multiple solutions with the same pH level. This could be done in order to ensure that the articles about sex communication quarterly visual monitoring received is accurate and How to Think of Fancy Dress Costume Ideas not flawed. If conflicting results are received, however, then that means that something may have gone wrong during the experiment. In order to have a better lab experience, we could be more prepared. For example, we could ensure that enough potato extract was present before the experiment began. In addition, we could practice titrating solutions so that we have experience before we begin.